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Abstract

Purpose. To investigate etiologies associated with impacted maxillary permanent central incisors, retrospectively. In later part of this article, we also reviewed the literature of the orthodontic management of impacted maxillary permanent central incisors. Methods. Standardized periapical radiographs of upper anterior region from 2005 to 2014 in Department of Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan, were reviewed. From the 1025 reviewed upper anterior periapical radiographs, a total of 64 patients with 68 impacted maxillary permanent central incisors were found and were subsequently evaluated for the etiologies which cause impaction. Results. The most common etiology of impacted maxillary permanent central incisor was root dilacerations (n=24 ). The other etiologies were: supernumerary teeth (n=21 ), odontoma (n= 8 ), malpositioned tooth germ (n=4 ), odontogenic cyst (n=4 ). There were no obvious etiologies in 2 patients, therefore were classified as idiopathic, may be due to crowding or primary failure of eruption. 1 patient had over-retained primary maxillary central incisor. Conclusions. In the present study, the most common etiology of impacted maxillary permanent central incisor in Taiwanese children was root dilaceration, followed by supernumerary teeth.

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