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Abstract

Mandibular symphysis is the critical reference for facial profile and determines the lower incisor position indirectly. It also serves as the primary consideration for diagnosis and treatment plans. This essay reviews articles relevant to the embryology and growth, morphology of mandibular symphysis, and its restrain on orthodontic tooth movement of lower incisors. Discussion mainly focused on the effectiveness of genioplasty, mandibular symphysis distraction osteogenesis, periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics on mandibular symphysis, which may breach its limitation on range of orthodontic tooth movement.

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