Comprehensive treatment of the facial skeleton and occlusion requires an understanding of all functional variables, including the upper airway. Numerous reports have shown a causal relationship between the upper airway and respiratory mode in the development of facial morphology and malocclusion. This article reviewed the airway assessment in normal subjects during growth and development, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) subjects and malocclusion subjects.
Chang, Kuang-Hsuan; Lai, Eddie Hsiang-Hua; Wang, Kang-Yee; Tsai, Hui-Jen; and Ho, Chih-Liang Julian
"Effect of Orthodontics on Upper Airway. Series 1: Growth and Development of Airway,"
Taiwanese Journal of Orthodontics: Vol. 26:
3, Article 1.
Available at: https://www.tjo.org.tw/tjo/vol26/iss3/1