The main characteristics of craniosynostosis were premature fusion of cranial sutures with specific skull shapes. There are divided into nonsyndromic and syndromic craniosynostosis. Syndromic craniosynostosis (SCS) was an inherited congenital craniofacial disorder and approximately 15% of craniosynostosis had associated anomalies in the face and limbs. Crouzon syndrome, Apert syndrome, Pfeiffer syndrome and Jackson-Weiss syndrome were the examples of SCS. Increased intracranial pressure (IICP), decrease intracranial volume, corneal exposure, decrease upper airway space, compression of optic nerve and midface hypoplaisa were the indications of surgical intervention. Current treatment modalities such as traditional surgical methods, including monobloc and LeFort III osteotomies as well as craniofacial distraction osteogenesis were reviewed and discussed.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.