The etiology of missing maxillary lateral incisors may include congenital missing ones, and previous extractions due to traumatic injury or large dental caries. Spacing and malocclusions following missing maxillary lateral incisors often result in significant impacts on facial esthetics and oral function. To treat these patients, there are orthodontic alternatives to choose from: (1) canine substitution, (2) autotransplantation, (3) conventional prosthetic restorations, and (4) single implants. The aim of this article is to review the prevalence of congenital missing maxillary lateral incisors, and the above-mentioned treatment options for managing missing maxillary lateral incisors.
Lin, Chih-Yu and Lin, Li-Hsiang
"Clinical Managements for Missing Maxillary Lateral Incisors – Literature Review,"
Taiwanese Journal of Orthodontics: Vol. 21:
4, Article 1.
Available at: https://www.tjo.org.tw/tjo/vol21/iss4/1
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